In particle physics, the tracking is the act of measuring the direction and magnitude of charged particlesmomenta. The particles entering a tracker (the device used for tracking), release part of their energy in the device: the tracker has to be finely segmented in order to be able to reconstruct with good precision where the particle passed. Since the tracking is usually made in a region where a magnetic field is present, it is possible to reconstruct part of the helix made by the particle inside the tracker (that is called track), and from the track parameters, and by knowing the mass of the particle under study (which is known by the use of particle identification), it is possible to reconstruct the actual direction and magnitude of the particle momenta. From these information the tracking of charged particles can be used to reconstruct secondary decays, this can be done for B-tagging (in experiments like CDF or at LHC) or to fully reconstruct events (like in BaBar and Belle).
Tracking is a technique in which dogs are trained to locate certain objects by using the object's scent, for a variety of purposes.
Tracking has always been an essential skill for dogs to survive in the wild, through hunting and tracking down potential prey.
Physiological Mechanisms of Tracking
Primarily, dogs use their sense of smell, to find and follow a track. Dogs have a highly sensitive olfactory system superior to humans, and are able to discriminate between different human’s scents. Moreover, dogs are also able to use visual cues to follow a track.
Phases of tracking
There are three phases, which complete the process of tracking:
1. Searching Phase
2. Deciding Phase
3. Tracking phase
Factors influencing a dog’s tracking ability
There are several factors which influences a dog’s ability to track:
Physiological features of the dog are a factor. Some instances include with age, sex are influences. As a dog ages, their olfactory acuity decreases and decreases their ability to track. Furthermore, male dogs have found to be better at tracking than females, possibly due to sex differences in olfaction. Sniffing behaviour also influences olfaction, and therefore a dog’s ability to track. For example, a dog’s ability to sniff is higher when it is not panting due to fatigue – it is physically impossible for a dog to both pant and sniff at the same time and the mouth must be open or closed respectively
. However, dogs trained to track during physically demanding activities may have adapted their behaviour by increasing sniffing frequency to maximize olfaction, and tracking. Also, different dog breeds have varying suitability to different tasks of tracking. For example, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives use Labrador Retrievers for their tracking purposes.
Tracking in hunting and ecology is the science and art of observing animal tracks and other signs, with the goal of gaining understanding of the landscape and the animal being tracked (quarry). A further goal of tracking is the deeper understanding of the systems and patterns that make up the environment surrounding and incorporating the tracker.
The practice of tracking may focus on, but is not limited to, the patterns and systems of the local animal life and ecology. Trackers must be able to recognize and follow animals through their tracks, signs, and trails, also known as spoor. Spoor may include tracks, scat, feathers, kills, scratching posts, trails, drag marks, sounds, scents, marking posts, the behavior of other animals, habitat cues, and any other clues about the identity and whereabouts of the quarry.
The skilled tracker is able to discern these clues, recreate what transpired on the landscape, and make predictions about the quarry. The tracker may attempt to predict the current location of the quarry and follow the quarry's spoor to that location, in an activity known as trailing.
In Dallas, Walter Lloyd (Hackman) runs a lumber business. After checking out at the office, Walter stops by the local racetrack, where his college-age son Chris (Dillon) works repairing stock cars. He reminds Chris of his mother's departure for Europe that afternoon, and Chris meets him back at the house to send her off.
Though their relationship is slightly strained, the family is tightly woven and carry on amicably, although an underlying tension between father and son is hinted at. Before she leaves, Chris' mother asks Walter to "break through to the kid." Walter attempts to bond with Chris over the next few days, Chris staying at the house and going on a fishing trip with Walter.
That night, the two are awoken by a late-night phone call from Paris informing Walter that his wife has split from her tour group. Although he downplays it, Walter's fear for his wife's well-being is apparent and Chris picks up on it. Prying further, Chris gets Walter to admit that she has, in fact, been missing two days. With that, Chris and Walter decide to go to Paris to find her.
Target is a 2004 action film directed by William Webb.
Charlie Snow (Stephen Baldwin) was a highly decorated war hero, a sniper who never placed emotion before the mission. Except once. Providing cover for an undercover arms dealer sting operation, he was forced into a predicament, as through his scope he saw a hostage crisis unfold.
The decision he made cost his fellow soldiers their lives. But he also managed to ventilate the hostage-taker, arms dealer Lendl Bodnar (Mio Deckala).
Back in the USA, Charlie is now a shell of the man he used to be. He has been ostracized from the government, and his family is falling apart. His wife Maggie (Deborah Worthing) is close to finalizing their split. He is an empty soul, as conveyed by the look in his eyes.
But Charlie's world is about to get rocked. Lendl Bodnar has a brother named Yevon Bodnar (Yorgo Constantine), an arms dealer who wants revenge on Charlie for Lendl's death.
Charlie's existence gets body-slammed when he learns that Maggie has been kidnapped, his daughter Lisa (Steffani Brass) and son Sam (Rory Thost) are in danger, and everywhere he turns, he's being attacked by Yevon's men.